Skin receptors are some of the most important parts of our skin even though many people who are not biology specialists may not have ever heard of them. They play the important role of sending information from the outside world to the nerves. The six different senses that skin receptors are concerned with are pressure, heat, cold, pain vibrations and touch. There are four different types of receptors which are ruffini corpuscles, pacinian corpuscle, meissner corpuscle, and free nerve endings.

Ruffini corpuscle is named after an Italian histologist and embryologist who discovered them in 1898. They are thought to be receptors in the skin sensitive to pressure on the skin. For them to be recognized, Angelo Ruffini corresponded about his work with an English physicist by the name Sir Charles Sherrington. Their friendship blossomed or developed after Ruffini had earlier on shared his work concerning muscle nerve endings with Sherrington. It was Sherrington who made sure that Rufinni’s work was published in the journal of physiology. Ruffini receptors respond to sustained pressure and have low adaptability. They are spindle shaped and play a crucial role in the kinesthetic movement of our fingers. Its because of them that we are able to have a firm grip on an object. They are also sensitive to skin stretch. Some believe them to be heat receptors which respond easily to temperature changes between 25 degrees and 45 degrees. They are found in the deep layers of our skin between the dermis of both hairy and glabrous skin.

The pacinian corpuscle were discovered by another Italian anatomist named Fillipo Pacini whom they were named after. It is very unfortunate that this man did not get to see himself been rewarded for his hard work for at the time of his discovery, many other Italian anatomists did not believe in his work. He was honored posthumously and to these day is respected the world over for what he did. Pacinian corpuscle are found all over our bodies and are the most sensitive types of skin receptors. Some of the places they are found on our bodies are on our sexual organs which are the penis and clitoris and also on our tongue and lips. They respond to vibrations and they are shaped more like onions. Pacinian corpuscle are found in the deep layers of the dermis in both hairy and glabrous skin. Meissner corpuscles are found in the dermis of glabrous skin. They are the ones responsible for you feeling sensitivity when you are putting on your clothes. Because they are highly adaptable, the feeling of the clothes you’ve put on ceases quickly thanks to this corpuscles. The free nerve endings are found throughout our skin and respond to different types of stimulations like thermal, mechanical or noxious. If you have any more information concerning skin receptors, then kindly contribute to this topic in the comments section below.


It is estimated that close to 50 million people in United States alone have blemishes. Though blemishes are not very severe like in the case of blown out acne, they deserve attention for they can affect someone’s emotions by lowering confidence and self esteem. This is especially true for teenagers and young adults who each and every day of their lives are measured by society and their social peers on how beautiful or handsome they are. Blemishes come about when pores under the skin are clogged by sedum which is the excess oil produced by the skin. This sedum when it comes into contact with bacteria found on the skin, a breeding ground for infection is formed. The immune system then kicks to overdrive and immediately tries to get rid of these bacteria by pushing it outside thus leading to inflammation and formation of pimples and blemishes. There are many ways of getting rid of blemishes. Some of them involve use of artificial products while others involve use of purely natural products.

Some of the artificial treatments that you can get in your nearby stores here in the united states are like  neutrogena healthy skin anti wrinkle anti blemish clear skin cream which has been endorsed by the world famous cosmetic queen Paula Begoun, Aveeno clear complexion daily moisturizer which is another product which has also been endorsed by Paula Begoiun, MD skincare all over blemish solution which has been highly rated by one of the leading beauty magazines called Real simple magazine, and Clearasil ultra vanishing acne treatment cream which is packed with benzoyl peroxide which is famous with skin experts for been a good acne treatment cream. These are a just a few of the products found in the United States known for keeping blemishes at bay. There are many more out there in the market which can work as well as these ones if not better. What you as a consumer have to know though as you embark on a journey of seeking the best artificial creams is that there are also sub standard cream products in the market. And because of that, one has to be really careful on which product you choose. It’s best to stick to the established brands just to be safe.

There are many natural products that you can use to get rid of your blemishes. Not only are these natural products cheap, they are also very much easily available. These natural products are like yoghurt, lemon juice, carrot juice, aloe Vera juice, tomato juice, potato juice, facial scrubbers, orange peels, baking soda paste, ice cube attachment, pressing skin with banana peel, just to mention but a few. Each and every product here is supposed to be used differently and it is highly recommended that you seek advice from a skin care expert before you use any of them. For instance, yoghurt which has natural lactic acid which when applied to the skin with blemishes, kills the bacteria is supposed to be applied only once a week for not more than ten minutes. Other products on the other hand can be applied on a daily basis or even three times a day sometimes if one wishes. These are like lemon juice and banana peels. The most widely acclaimed natural product to date is aloe Vera and application of its juice on the skin can have a lot of medicinal value. If you have any more information to add to this topic, then kindly add your opinion in the comment section below.


Scleroderma is one disease that many people have never heard of. It is solely because of this many people go undiagnosed with it even when the symptoms of the disease are very evident. Scleroderma is a chronic disease which affects the skin and other body organs causing them to dry up which in turn makes them not function properly like they are supposed to. It is not yet known exactly what the cause of this disease is but it is believed that the overproduction of collagens is the root cause. In America alone it is estimated that there are about 300,000 people suffering from the disease and the number would be higher if many people weren’t wrongly diagnosed. The reasons why there are many people suffering from the disease yet do not know it is because scleroderma symptoms can be confused easily with the symptoms of other diseases. This is quite unfortunate because early diagnosis can lead to better management of the disease. Those who are lucky enough to get the diagnosis early are able to live longer lives and can have a life expectancy like that of a normal person. Those who are not lucky enough to get the diagnosis early most of the times are caught unaware. Due to this, they can have a rapid decrease in their quality of life and eventually have an early death.

Scleroderma disease is classified into two categories which are localized scleroderma and systematic scleroderma. Localized scleroderma is the less serious type of scleroderma. This is because it only affects the skin only and most of the time tends to go away without any medical intervention. It mostly affects those people of European descent in America. Localized scleroderma is further divided into two types which are morphea and linear scleroderma. Morphea is the type which affects mostly children and is characterized by waxy patches on the skin. It most of the times disappears on its own with no medicine needed. Linear scleroderma also affects mostly children and can affect the formation of their limbs. Its waxy patches resemble a sword wound and the main difference between it and morphea is that it affects the skin deeper. Systematic scleroderma on the other hand is very serious in that it does not affect the skin only but also affects other organs of the body like the heart, lungs, kidneys, digestive system, and teeth. It affects in America people of African descent and Native Americans. Just like localized scleroderma, Systematic scleroderma is further divided into two types which are limited scleroderma and diffuse scleroderma. The difference between diffuse and limited scleroderma is that in diffuse scleroderma, thickening of the skin occurs in more areas of the skin rapidly than in limited. Fibrous hardening of the internal organs is also higher in people with diffuse scleroderma than in those with limited scleroderma. Limited scleroderma stands out from diffuse in that it takes a longer time for the sickness to really manifest itself in somebody.

Since scleroderma is a chronic disease, there is no cure for it. However one can take various measures to keep the disease at bay so that it does develop into a serious stage. This measures one can take are seeking medical advice from the various medical staff that deal with organs affected by the disease. These people are like dermatologists, orthopedic surgeons, cardiologists, and nephrologists. This is the only sure way of keeping healthy if suffering from scleroderma. If you have any suggestions or information concerning scleroderma, kindly let it be known in the comment section below.

Tattoos and their effect on the skin

Many tattoo lovers would say passionately that tattoos have no negative effects on the skin. Others who have seen the negative effects first hand would beg to differ and explain their reasons for their stand in details if they could. Getting tattoos is something which has been in existence for a very long time in different cultures all over the world. In Asia, many communities in present day India have been getting tattoos to indicate and symbolize different things in their lives. In Japan getting tattoos was and is still practiced amongst some groups of people there. In Australia and other small islands like New Zealand and Samoa, tattoos are and were a norm for the natives. In Africa, many communities like those found in West African countries like Nigeria used to get their tribal members tatted up to show or symbolize different stages of an individual’s life. In the Americas, that is both north, central and South America, the Native Americans like the Cherokee, Aztecs and the Maya also used tattoos to symbolize and give meaning to different things in their societies.

The traditional type of tattoos were not that complicated like the way present day tattoos are. This is because most of them used natural dyes from plants to color the tatted area as opposed to present day ink which is extracted from metallic compounds. These compounds depending on how the tattoo has been inserted can sometimes be harmful to one’s skin. If the tattoo artists is very gifted or talented at what he does, then chances are you won’t have any serious issues with the wound and its normal healing process will take normal course as expected. The modern day artificial metallic inks are made from different metals. The differentiating factor between them is color because different metals produce different colors. The following metals are used in making tattoo ink. Barium produces white, copper produces blue and green, aluminum green and violet, chromium green, nickel black, lead yellow green and white, iron brown red and black, titanium white, cobalt blue, zinc yellow and white, cadmium red yellow and orange, and mercury red. The problem with using this metal ink for tattoos is the toxicity effect of them in someone’s body. It has been proven that even after many years of been with a tattoo, these metals can cause irritations to someone’s skin and cause some serious side effects.

one of the negative effects of tattoos are scaring. This may happen when all does not go well as planned and the wound becomes serious and out of control. Another one is the spreading of bacteria on the skin which can result in diseases. These bacteria spread when incisions are made by the tattoo artist to get the ink under the skin thus creating small puncture wounds. These bacteria if left unchecked can lead to infections which sometimes can be serious enough and force the person with it to seek amputation.  Another side effect of tattoos is loss of natural pigmentation on one’s skin due to the metallic ink. This happens a lot especially when someone is undergoing tattoo removal when the skin is been heated with laser. Even though tattoos have their own advantages, the above negative side effects are some of the disadvantages which have been experienced by some who had to go through the process of getting tattoos. If you feel that you may have anything more to add to this topic, then kindly state your opinion in the comment section below.

Skin complications which come from diseases

There are many diseases which bring with them many skin complications every time somebody suffers from them. Some of these skin disease complications are so severe to the extent that you can immediately tell what the person is suffering from by just looking at his skin. Almost every disease ranging from sexually transmitted diseases to those caused by malnutrition and viruses have an adverse effect on the skin. Here we are going to look at how some diseases affect the skin. One such disease which has a direct negative effect on the skin is diabetes. When one is suffering from diabetes disease, his or her skin is likely to have the following characteristics. It becomes dry and itchy most of the times, The reasons for dryness of the skin in people with diabetes disease is because of the following. One is because most people who are diabetic tend to have high glucose levels. This high glucose levels are formed by using a lot of water and moisture present in our bodies. This process results in the use of all the moisture meant to keep our skin moist thus the drying effect. Second reason why people who are diabetic disease have dry skin is poor circulation. Diabetics tend to have loss of circulation and nerves which then hinders the normal functioning of sweat glands. When sweat glands completely shut down, our skin becomes dry because there is no sweat to keep it moist.

Another disease which is notorious for damaging our skin is cancer. Even though there are many types of cancers like lung, prostate and pancreatic, the most harmful of them all when it comes to our skin is skin cancer. According to doctors in a research facility in the United Kingdom, skin cancer manifests itself or has the following characteristics. The first characteristic that many people see is the change of pigmentation of the skin. Dark patches may appear on one part of the skin and then start spreading quickly to other areas. Another characteristic of skin cancer is bleeding, scaliness, and oozing of a bump or nodule in your body. To add to the above symptoms, skin cancer also causes a rise in the sensitivity of the skin. Because of these sensitivities, you may start feeling pain or tenderness on your skin because of things which in a normal person are not of concern. Like for instance, it may become harder for you to stay under the sun because of burning effect of its ultra violet rays. Another indirect effect of cancer on the skin can be dryness of the skin that comes due to some medications like chemotherapy. Chemotherapy which kills fast growing cancer cells also ends up destroying fast growing healthy cells thus causing the interruption in the way the skin works.

Another disease which is mostly sexually transmitted and has some serious side effects on the skin is AIDS. AIDS is an abbreviation of the words acquired immune deficiency syndrome. What AIDS does is attack the immune system in our body thus making us defenseless against any disease no matter how weak the disease is. This scenario leads to opportunistic skin infections that make the life of the sufferer unbearable. The above diseases are just a needle in the haystack of diseases that have adverse effects on the skin. Kindly add your opinions in the comment section below and add to the body of knowledge that we already have concerning this topic.

Brief facts about skin laser surgeries

There was a time when the mention of laser beams was only done in science fiction movies. But thanks to modern science, these days laser technology has become widespread and is in use in many places. Many people may not know it but the word laser is an abbreviation of the words Light Amplifications by the Stimulated Emissions of Radiation. It is the Russians who were the pioneers of laser technology. Since then others have followed suit through research and expounded on it. Here we are going to look at how laser treatment is been used in the medical professions by dermatologists to improve the lives of people. It is not known when exactly dermatologists started using laser treatments. But it is beyond doubt that right now many of them have it amongst the many options they offer for their clients. It is estimated that in America close to 250,000 people undergo laser resurfacing of the face surgery treatment every year. This statistic is proof enough to show that this treatment business is very popular and possibly worth multi millions of dollars if not billions.

Dermatologic lasers can be generally classified into two categories which are ablative and non ablative. Ablative lasers are ones which heat and remove the top layers of the skin. Some of the popular ablative used are carbon dioxide laser and erbium yag. According to the website belonging to the American society for dermatologic surgery, Carbon dioxide laser is broad and can be used in these three ways. It can be used in a focused state which means that it can be used to cut Skin without bleeding. In this type of focused treatment, the main aim of the surgery is to resurface the skin and give it a cosmetic improvement. This technique is best for repairing sun damaged skin, skin  on the face which has wrinkles, skin which is aging, and skin which has acne scars. Secondly it can be used in a defocused state where the dermatologist can treat precancerous growth, warts, and tumors. The third carbon dioxide laser state is called ultra pulsed where the laser beam is used to cut skin by concentrating the laser beam on one area.

The non ablative lasers are the opposite of ablative lasers in that they work underneath the skin and not over it. These non ablative lasers come in different colors and each color of laser plays a different role. For instance the yellow light lasers are used in the treatment of blood related illnesses while the green light lasers are used in the treatment of benign brown pigmented lesions. There are many advantages of using laser treatments in dermatology. One is that a majority of lasers provide a bloodless surgery, secondly is that they provide less scarring, and thirdly is their reduced risk of infection when compared with other types of surgeries. This reduced risk of infection comes about because there are no wounds like in the case of normal surgeries where bacteria can be transferred from tools to the patient been operated on. If you have anything more to add concerning laser treatments, kindly contribute to the discussion in the comment section below.

Herbal remedies for treating acne

Many people who suffer from acne have gone to great lengths to get rid of their skin problems unaware that they can utilize herbal remedies which are cheaper and much more effective to maintain their problems. Here we are going to look at some of the natural products and herbs that you can use to reduce acne. Number one on our list as an acne herbal remedy is garlic. Many people have praised this herb for its healing powers and magnificence. Those who do not know it often confuse it with onions which even though belong in the same category of plants, are a bit different. Skin experts have come to the realization that garlic has got the strongest antioxidants of all plants needed to bring acne to a halt in a patient. What antioxidants do in our body is very important. They prevent free oxygen atoms in our bodies from taking energy away from body cells which are needed in the normal function of body organs like skin. Garlic has a compound called allicin which decomposes into sulfenic acid, an acid considered to be the ultimate antioxidant. It’s this acid which gives garlic the unique smell and taste. Those in the medical and research fraternity are often amazed at how fast sulfenic acid reacts with the free oxygen radicals which steal energy from body cells. The reaction rate between these two is comparable to no other thus making sulfenic acid which comes from garlic the best antioxidant for treating acne. Other benefits of garlic which help reduce acne are its antifungal, antiviral, and antibacterial properties.

Number two on our list of herbal remedies for treating acne is aloe Vera. Aloe Vera helps battle acne by removing excess oil and dirt from the skin since it is a natural astringent. This excess oil is what primarily causes bacterial infection every time it clogs a pore. There are two important plant hormones found in aloe vera which help in treatment of acne. They are polysaccharides and gibberellins. These two hormones kill the bacterium that is the root of all acne so to speak.  The third herbal remedy for treating acne is lemons. When lemon juice is applied to the acne prone area, it does the following things. It first of all kills the bacteria that is the culprit in making the acne worse. Its able to do this because it is acidic and normally bacteria have a hard time thriving in acidic environments. It would be true to compare the citric acid found in lemons to an antiseptic since it more or less does the same job as an over the counter anti septic. The citric acid also plays the role of an astringent by removing oil from the surface of the skin. To add to all these, citric acid from lemon juice is believed by many to reduce the size and severinity of scars. You don’t have to be a genius to realize that lemon juice has many clinical uses besides been a fruit.

Other fruits and herbs which are good for the treatment of acne are neem, amaranth,beet, grape,basil,chickpea,cucumber,coriander,just to mention but a few. If you have any more information concerning herbal remedies for acne, then kindly state your opinion and information in the comments section below.

A brief explanation of freckles

So what are freckles? Well they are brown, red, or yellow pigmentations or clusters on one’s skin formed by the concentration of the color giving melanin in one area. They mostly affect people of fairer complexion who tend to have little natural melanin on their skin. These people are generally those with blonde or red hair, and are blue and green eyed. The good thing about freckles is that they have no negative effects whatsoever. They may cause a little bit of discomfort for some though, considering the fact that they appear on visible parts of one’s skin like the face. Whenever the topic of freckles comes up, two things are seen as the main causes of them. One is sunlight and the other is genetics. Exposure to the sun is the number one reason why many people develop freckles. Whenever somebody prone to freckles is exposed to ultra violet rays from the sun, his or her skin starts producing melanin in a bid to counter the effects of the rays. This is what leads to freckles appearing disproportionally on their skin.

Genetics on the other hand lead to the formation of freckles if one’s parents or biological ancestors had freckles and passed down the genes to their children. When this is the case then there is nothing one can do to prevent them from appearing since they are deeply ingrained in their fiber of their being. There are two types of freckles. There are simple freckles also known as ephelides and lentigines. Ephelides come and go depending on the season of the year and the amount of sunlight that directly hits you. These type are usually tan, small and round and can be approximately the size of a nail head used in construction. With the use of use of sunscreen and avoidance of direct sun, one can effectively avoid getting simple freckles. During winter time when the sun’s ultra violet rays are least harmful, these freckles can disappear altogether without any medical intervention or personal care.

Lentigines on the other hand which is the other type of freckles do not appear and disappear suddenly like in the case of simple freckles. They are formed as a result of the direct exposure of the skin to the sun overtime. These type of freckles is usually found in older people and its distinguishing features that sets it apart from simple freckles is its size and the fact that it is darker than the usual regular freckles. This type of freckles does not disappear during the winter but with proper skin care can be contained. According to dermatologists, the best way of reducing the chances of developing freckles is by avoiding direct sunlight and use of sunscreen protection, hats and any other material necessary when you are under direct sunlight. Kindly join in the conversation and let us know what you think about freckles by adding your opinion in the comment section below.

Scars and their treatments

Some say that there are four types of scars while others say there are three. The truth is none of them are wrong for there are different definitions of scars depending on where you are located. Here we are going to look at the different types of scars people have, how they are formed and what you can do to treat them. The four types of scars are contracture scars, hypertrophic scars, acne scars, and keloids. Contracture scars are the type of scars that cause tightening of the skin. They are very painful and can cause a lot of inconveniences because of their ability to impair movement. The best type of example of a contracture scar is a burn. Hypertrophic scars tend to look more like keloids in that they are raised and protruding from the skin. The only difference between them and keloids is that they do not extend beyond the original injury point or area. Keloids on the other hand protrude out of the skin, are very painful and itchy, and extend beyond the original injury point. Acne scars as many people know  already come about as a result of increase in androgen levels,especially during adolescence. It is estimated close to 90% of all adolescents living in the western world that is europe and the americas have acne during their adolescent stage.

We are going to start our discussion here with the most famous type of scars of them all which are acne scars. Acne scars come as a result of cysts appearing underneath a person’s skin popularly known as the dermis. When these cysts break out their matter after enlarging, that is when scarring occurs. The actual scar comes about when too much collagen accumulates in one area or spot as the wound tries to heal itself. There are different types of treatments for acne scars. Whether you use one of them or not it all depends on your type and extent of scarring. The various treatments available for acne scars and many scars in general are use of silicone sheeting and gel, dermabrasion, tissue fillers, laser treatments, surgery, and chemical peeling. Silicone sheeting and gel are commonly used in treating acne scars because of their effectiveness in treatment. Dermabrasion is defined by the medical dictionary as a surgical procedure designed to remove skin imperfections such as scars by abrading the surface of the skin with fine sandpaper or wire brushes. It is effective in removing scars which are not deep.

According to one famous medical doctor by the name Mehmet Oz, soft tissue fillers are injections of a solution of collagen, hyaluronic acid, fat, or elastin directly into acne scars to plump and smooth out the indentations left by pimples. When it comes to laser treatment, a laser beam is passed over the skin resulting in the skin dying off. Once the skin dies off,a new layer of skin is produced thus making the old skin to peel off giving way to the new layer of skin. Surgery is done as a scar treatment only if the scar is deep and very serious. One such situation is in dealing with a keloin scar which has come about as a result of a burn. Chemical peeling works by burning off the upper part of the scar to give way to growth of new skin. What you do is apply a cream or gel with a few chemical components like glycolic which are known to remove dead skin. Kindly let us know in the comment section below your personal views about scars and how they can be dealt with best.

Coping with chronic skin diseases

It can be difficult living with a chronic skin disease. This is because it not only affects your physical look but also brings stigma and discrimination with it. This discrimination makes it hard for you to be outgoing since many people do not like to associate themselves with people with serious skin conditions. The reason why people discriminate against those who are suffering from skin diseases is vastly because of misinformation and plain ignorance. Most people tend to believe that almost all skin diseases are contagious when it is not always the case. Only a few skin diseases are contagious. There are curable skin diseases and incurable  skin diseases. Some of the names of the incurable skin diseases are psoriasis, vitiligo, eczema, rosacea, and the most common of them all acne. When one is suffering from a chronic skin diseases, he not only suffers physically but also emotionally. They suffer emotionally when they have to always take into consideration the fact that people will outwardly majority of the times react negatively to their skin condition. This constant thinking and self consciousness eventually leads to stress and depression. A study done by one German doctor by the name Gerhard Schmidt found that patients suffering from chronic skin diseases like psoriasis had a quality of life the same as of those who suffer from serious diseases like heart disease, arthritis, and diabetes. This means that these skin diseases do affect negatively the lives of people who suffer from them, so much so that the quality of life of the sufferers is the same as that of those with serious health problems.

When we focus our attention on one specific skin disease, it’s easier to see how devastating these diseases we are talking about are.  A look at acne skin disease reveals best what we are talking about. Acne affects mostly young people aged between 13 and 19 years.  Though it can sometimes manifest itself in adults where it is called adult acne skin disease. Many teens and young adults who suffer from acne have many emotional problems as a direct result of their skin condition. Sometimes the emotional effects of these problems can be so serious they can lead to a lifetime of emotional struggle. Acne skin disease is known to make teenagers and young adults have low self esteem, be reserved, not be outgoing, have stress and depression, and in extreme circumstances be suicidal. Even though acne skin disease is not considered to be a very serious skin disease like psoriasis, those who suffer from it are advised to seek dermatological advice to see how they can best deal with it. Remedies for chronic acne skin disease are mostly eating and doing things which do not make the condition worse like avoiding foods with lots of fat and sugars,and keeping the pores on one’s skin clear and clean as much as possible.

According to medical experts and psychologists that have dealt with patients suffering from chronic skin diseases,the best way to deal with chronic skin diseases is to simply seek professional medical advice and at the same time have a positive attitude towards life. It is in most times futile to have one without the other especially for teenagers. Learning to live with the problems of chronic skin diseases and how to contain them is the best choice for one to take. Do let us known what you think is the best way of dealing with chronic skin problems in the comments section below.